Explanation of Sharding and Danksharding

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2022-08-01 07:26:45

Explanation of Sharding and Danksharding

It’s been a bad day today, because the timekeeper keeps saying you’re ten minutes late for work. In total this month, you have been late for work a total of twenty days.

The reason? The whole building has only one elevator, but your office is on the tenth floor. So queuing, waiting, and being late for work is inevitable.

One solution that everyone has come up with to save time is to move to a new building with more elevators (because no one wants to have to get up earlier).

The Ethereum blockchain is facing the same problem: too many transactions need to be processed (like a line of people queuing for an elevator), but the network’s infrastructure is limited (there is only one an elevator), resulting in slow transaction processing and high gas fees to return (everyone has to wait and take time to get into the elevator).

Sharding is a proposed solution to this problem by dividing the workload on the main blockchain (called Beacon Chain) among smaller chains, called “shards”.

What is Sharding?

In the proposed native sharding solution, transactions will be split up for processing by 64 shards, each of which will have its own proposer group and committee:

  • Proposer: has the role of aggregating transactions and sending them to notaries to validate them.
  • Notaries: responsible for validating transactions sent from the proposer.
  • Committee: is the “council” consisting of validators responsible for verifying blocks in a shard through voting.

Note that the proposer will have the same role as the miner in the Bitcoin blockchain, but the notaries and the committee have the same role, but the notaries are responsible for validating the transaction to aggregate the block into the shard chain, and the committee has the role of verifying the transaction. execute blocks on the shard chain to add to the Beacon Chain.

Committees are like “inspectors”, and an ombudsman team should not work with only one company forever, as this creates a problem of corruption. Similarly, the committee groups are always rotated to ensure the security and transparency of the system.

Each proposer group and committee work separately to ensure decentralization, but this also adds complexity to the system, prolonging transaction validation time. As shown below, the second Beacon Block needs to retrieve the data authenticated in the previous Block from separate committees:

Welcome to Danksharding

To overcome this complexity, Dankrad Feist, a researcher at the Ethereum Foundation, has come up with a new sharding solution: Danksharding, named after himself. In this solution, the blocks on the Beacon Chain will include the data on the shards to form a Big Block (still known as Beacon Block), and transactions will only need to go to a committee to be processed. In this method, data will be processed in a more synchronous manner, thereby saving time for users when interacting with the Ethereum blockchain. As shown in the figure, we can see that the second Beacon Block, instead of having to pull all the data from three different committees, it simply points to a single committee:

However, the problem lies in the creation stage Big Block above: in the traditional model, the proposer will be the person responsible for the confirmation process and aggregating transactions into these blocks, but what if they see all the user’s transactions and decide to drop passed them front-run? As such, the transaction time will still be slow for most users, and the application of sharding technology becomes meaningless.

To overcome this problem, a solution called Proposer-Builder Separation (PBS) was created that separates the role of transaction aggregator and aggregates them into a block: Builder will be the aggregator of transactions, but it is Proposer who arranges and decides to add them to the Beacon block, through the following diagram:

According to this method, the proposer has the right to arrange the order of the transactions so that the profit is the most (based on the information on the bid gas fee), but also cannot front-run the user because they do not know. full information about these transactions. After the proposer selects the block headers with the highest gas fees, the builder reveals all the information about these transactions to process them.

This model still has one flaw: the builders are the ones with more power, since they have the power to choose or reject any trades they see. Therefore, the proposer will specify a list of transactions (crList – Censor Resistance List) that builders Obligatory must be aggregated.

summary

The danksharding solution, although it solves some of the problems of the original sharding solution, requires many technical requirements more, especially with individuals acting as builder. However, danksharding is still considered an important brick, as a premise for the next steps in realizing sharding technology on the Ethereum blockchain.

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